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26th Sesshu International Art Association Exhibition | 雪舟国際美術協会展

In Reiwa, I was selected for the 26th Sesshu International Art Association Exhibition in December. 
Three to fifty years ago, I applied for and exhibited twice in a public oil painting exhibition. 
About 25 years ago, I started painting mainly ink paintings. 
About 10 years ago, I held a solo exhibition of ink painting mainly in Ginza. 
External artistic activity has since.
Sesshu, my favorite painter, studied by replicating ancient masters from China and Japan. There he was a painter who stared at nature and revealed the divinity that lurks in nature. It was an art society to honor Sesshu, so I applied.
The two on the right are duplicates of Sesshu, and my work is on the left.


How to draw Ink Painting: 4:footnote

(11) Nagatsu, Teizō(永津,禎三) “Sesshū fude Shūtō Sansuizu o Yomu” (雪舟筆秋冬山水図を読む), 琉球大学教育学部紀要, 57,p.87-106
(12)  Hasumi, Shigeyasu (蓮見, 重康) “Sesshū Tōyō no Kenkyū”(雪舟等楊の研究)『京都大学文学部研究紀要 = Memoirs of the Faculty of Letters, Kyoto University』 (1960), 6: 1-149


How to draw Ink Painting: 4

How to draw Ink Painting: 4: Sesshū

Buddhist painter Sesshū (雪舟 | せっしゅう, 1420-1506) and his
View of Ama-no-Hashidate》(天橋立図 | あまのはしだてず) (c. 1502–1505), Kyoto National Museum. Image by Wikipedia Commons .

Brief history: "Japanese Art Thesaurus Database: Painting" has his school and yearly commentary
Footprints of journeys as a monk painter:
Bicchū Akahama(備中国赤濱) , present place name is Sōja-city, Okayama-pref (岡山県総社市) Hōfukuji-temple (宝福寺) (1430. He was about 10 years)→
Kyoto, Shōkokuji-temple(京〔相国寺〕) (about 13 to 32 years old) →
{Kumogaya, Miyanomura, Suō}(周防,宮根村雲ケ谷) (Yamaguchi-pref | 山口県) →
“Unkoku-an” (雲谷庵) (about 1454) →
 Ming (China)(1467-69), {Ningbo}(寧波), “Jungfu temple”(天童山景福寺) in {Siming Difan}(四明地方) →
{Beijing}(北京) →
Return Japan, {Bungo} (Ōita-pref.) (豊後|大分県), {Buzen}(Fukuoka pref.)(豊前 | 福岡県) (about 1473) →
{Iwami}(Shimane-pref.) (岩見, 島根県)(about 1479)→
{Mino}(Gifu pref.)(美濃, 岐阜県)(1481)→
{Kantō region}(関東地方) →
{SuŌ}(周防)(about 1483)→
{Amanohashidate}(Kyōto)(京都,天橋立)(1501)→ {Iwami}
(岩見) (Died in 1506) 
    He studied painting as a disciple of "Shūbun"(周文). His pen name was "Sessō Tōyō"(拙宗等揚), probably because of the painting school of "Josets"(如拙).
    He was in a low position of "Shika" (知客|しか) who served guests at Zen temple. Because he was a master of painting, he was accompanied by “Envoy to Ming (China)”.
    He studied painting in "Ming China" with "Chang Yousheng"(長有声) and "Li Zai"(李在). Also the scenery of China was his master. 
(Reference; Yakuchū Honchō Gashi (訳註本朝画史) / ed. by Kasai, Masaaki (笠井, 昌昭). Vol. 4, p.30

  • 《Tangtu Shengjing Tuguan》(唐土勝景図巻) by Reproduction of "Sesshū" school painter. 
  • 《Chinda falls》(鎮田の滝)(Yamaguchi pref. 山口県) copied by Kanō, Tsunenobu (狩野常信). 
  • 《Amanohashidate》(in Kyōto 天橋立, 京都) (National Treasure) after 82 years old.
    He copied China's masterpieces and improved his painting skills. After that, he sketched a lot of actual scenery and was also selected as "the world's 10 largest cultural people" at the "World Peace Council" held in 1956. 。

"Translation and commentary: Honchōgashi" by Masaaki Sakurai has texts from the Edo period, translations into modern languages, and detailed notes. You read it and get knowledge.

Let's investigate "Sesshū" in "Wikipedia" and "Kotobank" and Hasumi, Shigeyasu(蓮見, 重康)(1960) , etc. 

Commentary:《Amanohashidate-zu》(天橋立図). Ink on Japanese Paper. Sketch with paper added (draft book) The color of "temple" is red.
It is a bird's-eye view looking down at "Amanohashidate" from the top of the mountain.
Chion-ji Temple (Kurito Monju)(知恩寺,切戸の文殊) in the figure was built in 1501. 
Nariaiji temple(成相寺) burned to 1507. Thus, this sketch was drawn during 1501-1507.

Let's write what you felt. 

In addition to "Yakuchu Honcho Gashi" ed. By Masaaki Kasai, let's acquire more detailed knowledge by Hiroshi Kanazawa (1968), Susumu Hayashi (1993) and others

Another masterpieces: 《Splashed-ink Landscape scroll 破墨山水図 | はぼくさんすいず》 
Self-compliment, and such as GetsuoShukyo (月翁周鏡), 1495 ←自賛・〔月翁周鏡〕等賛,1495年 
Ink on a Japanese Paper, (Tokyo National Museum)

Commentary: A work when 76 years old. A painting made by throwing ink.
In self-compliment wrote as “gave a Haboku Shansui-zu(破墨山水図) to Sōen(宗淵)”.
Painting style integrating “rock wrinkles of Xiao Qui” and “abbreviated style by Liang Kai”.
This is vertically oriented mountains and abstracted painting style.

画僧〔雪舟〕(1420-1506)と《天橋立図》(Wikipedia Commons) 

生涯:☆「日本美術シソーラス・データベース絵画編」 に流派と年譜的解説があります。
備中国赤濱(現岡山県総社市)〔宝福寺〕(1430年十歳頃) →
京〔相国寺〕 (13才頃-32才) →
{周防国宮野村雲ガ谷} →
〔雲谷庵〕(1454年頃) →
帰国{豊後}{豊前}(1473年頃)→{岩見}(1479年頃)→ {周防}(1480年)→ {美濃}(1481年)→
{周防} (1483年頃)→
〔周文〕 の弟子として絵を学び、〔如拙〕の絵を慕い〔拙宗等揚〕と画号与えられました。
【明】では〔長有声〕、〔李在〕に学び、また実景を師匠としました(〔笠井, 昌昭〕編『訳註本朝画史. 巻四』 p.30に『本朝画史』)。

前述の〔笠井, 昌昭〕編『訳註本朝画史. 巻四』には原文、現代語訳、注があり、知識を得ましょう。

ウィキペディア〔雪舟〕、コトバンク〔雪舟〕で調べましょう。〔蓮見, 重康〕(1960) も調べましょう
作品解説:《天橋立図》紙本墨画、紙を継ぎ足したスケッチ(稿本) 水墨に寺の一部朱筆。

前述の〔笠井, 昌昭〕編『訳註本朝画史. 巻四』、〔金澤弘〕(1968)、〔林進〕(1993) 等で、より詳しい知識を獲得しましょう。


How to draw Ink Painting: 3 footnote

How to draw Ink Painting: 3 footnote

12) Xieyi | Freehand or Expression | 写意 (しゃい) : 意を持って写すこと。つまり、形の描写を主としないで、形の奥に宿るものを画家の意のまま描くことを重要視すること。元の〔湯垕〕(とうこう | Tang Hou)の『画鑑』(がかん | Huajian )に「東坡先生、、、墨竹、、、大抵寫意不求形似」つまり、〔蘇軾〕(1036-1101)の墨竹図は意を写して、およそ形を求めない」と説明しています。(維基文庫『畫鑒_(四庫全書本) 』) 

 13)  Cunfa | Wrinkles of mountains and rocks 
【皴法】(しゅんぽう)  主に水墨画で山肌や岩肌等の量感や質感を描く皺(しわ)の描き方。詳細は【皴法】の項にて説明します。

  14) Yudian Cun | The rain drops on the rock | 雨点皴 (うてんしゅん) 俗に【芝麻皴】(しましゅん)ともいいます。〔范寛〕が用いた皴で、墨の筆法は雨粒のように描く方法です。

Let's make paintings
The exact English translation will be updated at a later date..

12) Xieyi | Ancient Oriental Expressionism | 写意 (しゃい) :  They believed that "the purpose of painting is to express the emotions of the painter, not just to draw the shape of the object". Yuan dynasty's Tang Hou (湯垕) explained in his book "Huajian (画鑑) ", as follows:
「東坡先生、、、墨竹、、、大抵寫意不求形似」. So,the "ink bamboo" drawn by Su Shi (蘇軾1036-1101) did not draw a shape and expressed his heart.
Fulltext:(維基文庫『畫鑒_(四庫全書本) 』)

13) Cunfa | Wrinkles of mountains and rocks 【皴法】(しゅんぽう)
Ink painting technique: How to draw wrinkles to create a sense of volume and texture such as mountain and rocks.I will explain the details in the section of "Cunfa".

14)Yudian Cun | The rain drops on the rock | 雨点皴 (うてんしゅん) Also known as "Zimacun【芝麻皴】(しましゅん)".
Fankuan (范寛) used this drawing. So, rain drops on the rock and mountain skin.


How to draw Ink Painting: 3

Let's put a pause on the difficult theory for now and let's make paintings. 

Let's interpret "Spirit resonance" as "How to express the feeling of heaven and earth".
It is important to know how one can acquire "Spirit resonance". In my opinion, one way is to take many trips, and draw while feeling nature with your eyes and senses.  You sketch over and over again; an important point being to go beyond Realism.
For example:
☆Fan Kuan (范寛 | はんかん, Years of birth and death unknown, ca.1023-32) and his《Travelers Among Mountains and Streams谿山行旅図 | けいざんこうりょず》Scroll. (〔National place museum国立故宮博物院〕{Taipei 台北})

Image: by Wikipedia Commons.

Brief history:His master was Li Cheng (李成 | りせい), but later he decided to make mind a teacher, not people or objects. It was written as follows in the "Song Dynasty painting review宋朝名畫評 卷二".

「He lived alone in {Mt. Zhongnan 終南山} and {Mt. Hua華山}, where he made observations of mountains and waters that change throughout the four seasons. He was able to draw the true essence of the mountains, waters and weather, becoming a master of "Landscape painting". A master of "Landscape painting".

Commentary:Guo Xi (郭煕 | かくき) in『Linquan Gaozhi | 林泉高致集 | りんせんこうちしゅう』he explained 【Three types of perspective composition 三遠法】as:
1st 【Gao yuan】(高遠 | こうえん): "perspective in height: composition from below up the top of the mountain".
2nd 【Ping yuan】(平遠 | へいえん): "perspective on the level: composition to see behind mountains from the previous mountain".
3rd 【Shen yuan】 (深遠 | しんえん): "perspective in depth: composition to look into behind mountains from the previous mountain".
In Fan Kuan's painting, this picture he utilises the perspective of use Gao yuan.
References: see Web site "Kotobank dictionary" (コトバンク) URL:三遠
【Yudian cun】(雨点皴 | うてんしゅん) one of the blushing method that 【Cun fa】 (皴法 | しゅんぽう) made by him. Cun fa is how to draw mountain skin and rock wrinkles. Yudian cun is to draw a point like rain on the ground: It looks like rain if you draw small points continuously.

【気韻】を如何に得るかが大事です。それは、「万里の路を行って描く」、つまり、自然に浸り、神気(しんき | 不思議な霊気)を肌で感じながら写生し、【写意】 を超えるまで写生しましょう。

☆〔范寛〕(ハン, カン)(生没年不詳,1023-32頃も在世)と《谿山行旅図》軸(〔国立故宮博物院〕(台北))、
写真はWikipedia Commonsより。

すると改め」、『宋朝名畫評 卷二』によれば、

【皴法】(しゅんぽう) の【雨点皴】 も創る。見どころ:主たる山のボリューム感


How to draw Ink Painting: 2 Footnote

3.1 "Spirit Resonance" and "Exceptionally fine work".
9) "Toga Kenmonshi | Tuhua Jianwenzhi" 『圖畫見聞誌』 / Guo Ruoxu | 郭若虚撰. Full text:
10) Gaketsu | Huajue「畫訣」(In "Gazenshitsu zuihitu | Huachanshi Suibi"『画禅室随筆巻二』/ by Dong Qichang | 董其昌. ), Full text: Wikisourse  Chinese『維基文庫』所収
11) Tomioka, Tessai〔富岡鉄斎〕(1836-1924). Commentary as follows: Sēkōden Tessai Museum〔聖光殿鉄斎美術館〕 "Tetsusai Exhibition" held in Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Art. 「〔兵庫県立美術館〕「鉄斎展(2016.3.12-5.8)」


How to draw Ink Painting: 2

Following this theory, I will explain the painting production technique below.

3.1 "Spirit Resonance" and "Exceptionally fine work".

  Why do people draw pictures? Let's think this in relation to human nature. Guo Ruoxu (郭若虚 | かく,じゃくきょ) of the Northern Song Dynasty wrote "Tuhua Jianwenzhi 図画見聞誌 (1074)" in which commentaries on "Spirit Resonance気韻生動" were found in "The Record of the Classification of Old Painters古画品録" by Xie He (謝赫 | しゃかく). 
  The translation into modern language is as follows.
The interpretation of "The Six Principles of Chinese Painting" has not changed from long ago. Anyone can learn "Bone Method 骨法用筆" and others.
However "Spirit resonance" is a talent given from god.    Even if the picture can be drawn precisely, they cannot encapsulate "Spirit resonance". It does not change even if after years have transpired. People understand "Spirit resonance" without the use of words. 
    I (Guo Ruoxu) do not know why it is so.    (snip)   Sometimes certain paintings makes people feel a sense of nobility or elegance.     If a picture has a noble character, the energy of god will also be high.    If Energy of God is strong, a picture seems to be living. And that picture is called "God-like (神品)". 
  In another passage, he said as follows.  
If a personality is high, he can draw a painting to be of "God-like" quality.
If a genius is only a decided person, people cannot draw God-like pictures. 
  If so, the feelings of the people who draw the picture withdraw. So at the end of the Ming dynasty, Dong Qichang (董其昌 | とうきしょう1555-1636) who developed "Southern school of Chinese painting 文人画" , said if you read many books and travel many miles, you can get "Sprit resonance" from "Huajue 画訣" (Gaketsu)  in  "Essay at Gazenshitsu 画禅室随筆 Volume 2".   That is why the southern school of Chinese painting was popular. 

  Tomioka Tessai (富岡鉄斎 | とみおかてっさい, 1836-1924) was a scholar and painter of the Meiji era who researched "Japanese Study 国学", "Chinese classics 漢籍", "Yangmingism 陽明学" and "Southern school of Chinese painting". He read many books and traveled many miles then he was highly regarded as a painter.



3.1 気韻生動と逸格

 人はどうして描くのか?という人間性の根源にかかわる問題も含みます。{北宋}の〔郭若虚〕(かくじゃくきょ)『図画見聞誌』 )に〔謝赫〕の『古画品録』の「気韻生動」の解説があります。現代語訳は次のとおりです。
高雅の情は第一に画に寄するなり。人品(人格が)すでに高ければ、気韻も高からざるを得ない。気韻がすでに高ければ生動が至らざるを得ない。いわゆるこれを神にして又神にして、よく精なる(立派な)ものである。」       です。
として、気韻は天分による、としています。しかし、明末になると、文人画の〔董其昌〕(1555-1636)(とう, きしょう)の『画禅室随筆巻二』「畫訣」(がけつ) に「万巻の書を読み、万里の路を行けば気韻も得られる」と、文人画隆盛の基礎を築きました。

その「万巻の書を読み、万里の路を行く」を実践し、余技画家の評価のほうが高い明治の学者に〔富岡鉄斎〕(1836-1924) がおります。